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moving on to bilingual, i guess... still studying english, though... please understand... lol

2009/02/19

Kebijakan Jam Masuk 6.30

Saya sebagai siswa mengaku sangat tidak menyetujui kebijakan jam masuk (pukul 6.30 pagi) yang telah diterapkan oleh Pemda Jakarta ini. Setiap harinya saya bangun dengan segenap kantuk, pegal, lelah yang masih menempel pada tubuh, saya juga harus berusaha tidur lebih awal padahal masih ada tugas/ulangan yang harus dipersiapkan untuk esok hari, tidak mungkin juga saya mempersiapkannya di siang hari karena les-les serta bimbel khusus persiapan untuk Ujian Nasional serta Ujian Sekolah mendatang. Di weekend, saya juga masih memiliki beberapa kegiatan, dan tidak jarang juga harus mengerjakan tugas yang tertunda sebelumnya sehingga hanguslah dua hari yang biasa saya gunakan untuk melepas lelah setiap minggunya. Sudah berhari-hari, berminggu-minggu, berbulan-bulan, yang bahkan terasa berabad-abad jika sedang tertimpa akibat-akibat kebijakan jam masuk itu saya merasakannya. Menurut saya, pemerintah sudah kelewat sadis memberlakukan peraturan semacam ini. Pasalnya, lebih dari 60% Negara di seluruh dunia menetapkan jam masuk sekolah (SD/SMP/SMA) di atas pukul 8.00 pagi dan pulang di bawah pukul 2.00 siang. Tidakkah terpikirkan betapa kejamnya sistem pendidikan di Indonesia (terutama Jakarta) yang menetapkan jam masuk pada pukul 6.30 pagi, dan jam pulang yang biasanya di atas pukul 2.00 siang (terutama bagi SMP dan SMA) dengan alasan mereka menjadi penyebab kemacetan? Sampai detik ini pun saya belum melihat banyak kemajuan dari kelancaran berlalu lintas di Jakarta walaupun kami, para siswa sudah banyak berkorban. Malahan saya lebih sering menjumpai kemacetan di daerah sekolah sekarang. Menurut saya, kebijakan itu dibuat tanpa memikirkan kondisi anak-anak sekolahan sekarang yang tingkat stresnya bahkan diketahui 300% lebih tinggi dari anak-anak sekolah generasi lalu, juga sangat tidak adil dan egois, hanya menguntungkan segelintir orang dan merugikan calon-calon penerus bangsa yang setiap harinya meneteskan keringat untuk belajar keras, serta tidak efektif, tidak menghargai usaha para siswa, dan benar-benar dibuat tanpa didasari kehidupan anak-anak sekolahan.

Saya beri contoh di kehidupan saya, setiap Senin dan Rabu, saya baru bisa kembali ke rumah setelah pukul 6.00 sore karena les serta acar sekolah. Di Selasa, Kamis, dan Jumat, ada bimbingan belajar yang harus saya jalani untuk persiapan Ujian Nasional yang juga kebijakan pemerintah (walau bukan pemda DKI) sehingga saya baru mencapai rumah pukul 8.00 sore atau lebih (pukul 6.00 untuk Jumat). Di Sabtunya, sekolah saya mengadakan semacam ‘pra-UN’ sehingga bertambahlah bimbel saya. Setelah itu pun saya masih harus les musik sampai pukul 1.00 siang. Biasanya ada saja acara setelah itu setiap minggunya, entah pernikahan keluarga, atau kompetisi sekolah, sampai survey calon SMA yang akan saya masuk, sehingga kira-kira paling cepat saya baru bisa istirahat di rumah pukul 3.00 siang. Di hari Minggu, ada les olagraga yang memaksa saya untuk tidak beristirahat sampai pukul 1.00 siang. Hari Minggu juga merupakan hari yang sibuk karena setelah itu, tidak jarang acara-acara yang harus saya hadiri digelar hari itu. Pulangnya, saya seringkali harus mengerjakan tugas yang tidak sempat diselesaikan di weekdays. Saya yakin sangat banyak anak-anak sekolahan Jakarta yang lebih stress dibandingkan dengan saya saat dicanangkannya peraturan jam masuk baru ini. Jadi saya sangatlah menghargai siapapun atau apapun yang memuat berbagai berita, artikel, dll. tentang hal seperti ini.

Saya rasa demikian ‘curhat’ saya, kesempurnaan hanya milik Allah, kekurangan hanya milik kita makhluknya termasuk diri saya. Terima kasih sekali bagi para pembaca.

Ps.
Artikel ini sengaja gw buat pake bahasa lebih formal dari biasanya. Anak-anak clst pasti kaget gw pake kata-kata kayak gitu, tapi ya kita emang harus punya beberapa ‘persona’ dalam menjalani hidup ini.

2009/02/12

Facebook

Facebook
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Facebook, Inc.
Type Private
Founded Cambridge, Massachusetts
(February 4, 2004)[1]
Headquarters Palo Alto, California
Dublin, Ireland (international headquarters for Europe, Africa, Middle East)
Key people Mark Zuckerberg, Founder and CEO
Dustin Moskovitz, Co-founder
Sheryl Sandberg, COO
Matt Cohler, VP of Product Management
Chris Hughes, Co-founder
Revenue ▲ 300 million USD (2008 est.)[2]
Employees 700 (November 2008)[3]
Website facebook.com
Type of site Social network service
Advertising Banner ads, referral marketing
Registration Required
Available in Bulgarian, Catalan, Chinese (simplified), Chinese (Hong Kong), Chinese (Taiwan), Croatian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English (American), English (British), English (Pirate), Filipino, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Hungarian, Indonesian, Irish, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Malay, Norwegian (bokmål), Polish, Portuguese (Brazilian), Portuguese (European), Romanian, Russian, Serbian, Slovene, Spanish (Castilian), Swedish, Thai, Turkish, Vietnamese, Welsh
Launched February 2004


Facebook, formerly The Facebook, is a free-access social networking website that is operated and privately owned by Facebook, Inc.[1] Users can join networks organized by city, workplace, school, and region to connect and interact with other people. People can also add friends and send them messages, and update their personal profiles to notify friends about themselves. The website's name refers to the paper facebooks depicting members of a campus community that some US colleges and preparatory schools give to incoming students, faculty, and staff as a way to get to know other people on campus.

Mark Zuckerberg founded Facebook while he was a student at Harvard University.[4] Website membership was initially limited to Harvard students, but was expanded to other colleges in the Boston area, the Ivy League, and Stanford University. It later expanded further to include any university student, then high school students, and, finally, to anyone aged 13 and over. The website currently has more than 150 million active users worldwide.[5]

Facebook has met with some controversy over the past few years. It has been blocked intermittently in several countries including Syria[6] and Iran.[7] It has also been banned at many places of work to increase productivity.[8] Privacy has also been an issue, and it has been compromised several times. It is also facing several lawsuits from a number of Zuckerberg's former classmates, who claim that Facebook had stolen their source code and other intellectual property.Contents [hide]
1 History
2 Financials
3 Website
3.1 Features
3.2 Platform
4 Reception and popularity
4.1 Use by courts
5 Potential future film
6 Controversies
6.1 Beacon
6.2 Privacy
7 Litigation
7.1 ConnectU
7.2 StudiVZ
7.3 Grant Raphael
7.4 Adam Guerbuez
8 References
9 External links


History

The advent of Facebook came about as a spin-off of a Harvard University version of Hot or Not called Facemash.[9] Mark Zuckerberg, while attending Harvard as a sophomore, concocted Facemash on October 28th, 2003. Zuckerberg was blogging about a girl and trying to think of something to do to get her off his mind :[10]Zuckerberg wrote at 8:13pm:
— [...] I need to think of something to make to take my mind off her. I need to think of something to occupy my mind. Easy enough, now I just need an idea."
Continuing at 9:48pm:
— "I'm a little intoxicated, not gonna lie. So what if it's not even 10 p.m. and it's a Tuesday night? What? The Kirkland [dorm] facebook is open on my desktop and some of these people have pretty horrendous facebook pics. I almost want to put some of these faces next to pictures of farm animals and have people vote on which is more attractive."
11:09 pm:
— " "Yea, it's on. I'm not exactly sure how the farm animals are going to fit into this whole thing (you can't really ever be sure with farm animals . . .), but I like the idea of comparing two people together."


According to the Harvard Crimson, Facemash "used photos compiled from the online facebooks of nine Houses, placing two next to each other at a time and asking users to choose the “hotter” person." The site was quickly forwarded to several campus group list-serves but was shut down a few days later by the Harvard administration. Zuckerberg was charged by the administration with breach of security, violating copyrights and violating individual privacy and faced expulsion, but ultimately the charges were dropped.[11]

The Facebook on February 12, 2004

The following semester, Zuckerman founded "The Facebook," originally located at thefacebook.com, on February 4, 2004.[12]

“Everyone’s been talking a lot about a universal face book within Harvard,” Zuckerberg told The Harvard Crimson. “I think it’s kind of silly that it would take the University a couple of years to get around to it. I can do it better than they can, and I can do it in a week.”[13] Membership was initially restricted to students of Harvard College, and within the first month, more than half the undergraduate population at Harvard was registered on the service.[14] Eduardo Saverin (business aspects), Dustin Moskovitz (programmer), Andrew McCollum (graphic artist), and Chris Hughes soon joined Zuckerberg to help promote the website. In March 2004, Facebook expanded to Stanford, Columbia, and Yale.[15] This expansion continued when it opened to all Ivy League and Boston area schools, and gradually most universities in Canada and the United States.[16] In June 2004, Facebook moved its base of operations to Palo Alto, California.[15]The company dropped The from its name after purchasing the domain name facebook.com in 2005 for $200,000.[17] Facebook launched a high school version in September 2005, which Zuckerberg called the next logical step.[18] At that time, high school networks required an invitation to join.[19] Facebook later expanded membership eligibility to employees of several companies, including Apple Inc. and Microsoft.[20] Facebook was then opened on September 26, 2006 to everyone of ages 13 and older with a valid e-mail address.[21][22] In October 2008, Facebook announced that it was to set up its international headquarters in Dublin, Ireland. [23]

Financials

Facebook headquarters in Palo Alto, California

Facebook received its first investment of US$500,000 in June 2004 from PayPal co-founder Peter Thiel.[24] This was followed a year later by $12.7 million in venture capital from Accel Partners, and then $27.5 million more from Greylock Partners.[24][25] A leaked cash flow statement showed that during the 2005 fiscal year, Facebook had a net loss of $3.63 million.[26]

With the sale of social networking website MySpace to News Corp on July 19, 2005, rumors surfaced about the possible sale of Facebook to a larger media company.[27] Zuckerberg had already said he did not want to sell the company, and denied rumors to the contrary.[28] On March 28, 2006, BusinessWeek reported that a potential acquisition of Facebook was under negotiation. Facebook reportedly declined an offer of $750 million from an unknown bidder, and it was rumored the asking price rose as high as $2 billion.[29]

In September 2006, serious talks between Facebook and Yahoo! took place concerning acquisition of Facebook, with prices reaching as high as $1 billion.[30] Thiel, by then a board member of Facebook, indicated that Facebook's internal valuation was around $8 billion based on their projected revenues of $1 billion by 2015, comparable to Viacom's MTV brand, a company with a shared target demographic audience.[31]

On July 17, 2007, Zuckerberg said that selling Facebook was unlikely because he wanted to keep it independent, saying "We're not really looking to sell the company. ... We're not looking to IPO anytime soon. It's just not the core focus of the company."[32]

In September 2007, Microsoft approached Facebook, proposing an investment in return for a 5% stake in the company, offering an estimated $300–500 million.[33] That month, other companies, including Google, expressed interest in buying a portion of Facebook.[34]

On October 24, 2007 Microsoft announced that it had purchased a 1.6% share of Facebook for $240 million, giving Facebook a total implied value of around $15 billion.[35] However, Microsoft bought preferred stock that carried special rights, such as "liquidation preferences" that meant Microsoft would get paid before common stockholders if the company is sold. Microsoft's purchase also included rights to place international ads on Facebook.[36]

In November 2007, Hong Kong billionaire Li Ka-shing invested $60 million in Facebook.[37]

In August 2008, BusinessWeek reported that private sales by employees, as well as purchases by venture capital firms, had and were being done at share prices that put the company's total valuation at between $3.75 billion and $5 billion.[36]

In October 2008, Zuckerberg said "I don't think social networks can be monetized in the same way that search did. ... In three years from now we have to figure out what the optimum model is. But that is not our primary focus today."[38]

Website

Facebook's new homepage features a login form on the top right for existing users and a registration form directly underneath for new visitors.

Facebook users may choose to join one or more networks, organized by city, workplace, school, and region.[39] These networks help users connect with members of the same network. Users can also connect with friends, giving them access to their friends' profiles.[40]

The website is free to users, but generates revenue from advertising. This includes banner ads.[41] Users can create profiles including photos and lists of personal interests, exchange private or public messages, and join groups of friends.[42] By default, the viewing of detailed profile data is restricted to users from the same network and "reasonable community limitations".[43]

Microsoft is Facebook's exclusive partner for serving banner advertising,[44] and as such Facebook only serves advertisements that exist in Microsoft's advertisement inventory. According to comScore, an internet marketing research company, Facebook collects as much data from its visitors as Google and Microsoft, but considerably less than Yahoo!.[45]

Features
Main article: Facebook features The excessive length of this section may adversely affect readability.
Please discuss this issue on the talk page, split the content into subarticles, and keep this page in a summary style.


The media often compares Facebook to MySpace, but one significant difference between the two websites is the level of customization.[46] MySpace allows users to decorate their profiles using HTML and Cascading Style Sheets (CSS), while Facebook only allows plain text.[47]

Facebook has a number of features with which users may interact. They include the Wall, a space on every user's profile page that allows friends to post messages for the user to see,[48] Pokes, which allows users to send a virtual "poke" to each other (a notification that tells a user that they have been poked),[49] Photos, where users can upload albums and photos,[50] and Status, which allows users to inform their friends of their whereabouts and actions.[51] A user's Wall is visible to anyone who is able to see that user's profile, which depends on their privacy settings. In July 2007, Facebook began allowing users to post attachments to the Wall, whereas the Wall was previously limited to textual content only.[48]

Over time, Facebook has added several new features to its website. On September 6, 2006, a News Feed was announced, which appears on every user's homepage and highlights information including profile changes, upcoming events, and birthdays related to the user's friends.[52] Initially, the News Feed caused dissatisfaction among Facebook users; some complained it was too cluttered and full of undesired information, while others were concerned it made it too easy for other people to track down individual activities (such as changes in relationship status, events, and conversations with other users).[53] In response to this dissatisfaction, Zuckerberg issued an apology for the site's failure to include appropriate customizable privacy features. Since then, users have been able to control what types of information are shared automatically with friends. Users are now able to prevent friends from seeing updates about different types of activities, including profile changes, Wall posts, and newly added friends.[54]

One of the most popular applications on Facebook is the Photos application, where users can upload albums and photos.[55] Facebook allows users to upload an unlimited number of photos, compared with other image hosting services such as Photobucket and Flickr, which apply limits to the number of photos that a user is allowed to upload. In the past, all users were limited to 60 photos per album. However, some users report that they are able to create albums with a new limit of 200 photos. It remains unclear why some members have a 200-photo limit while others do not.[56][57][58] Privacy settings can be set for individual albums, limiting the groups of users that can see an album. For example, the privacy of an album can be set so that only the user's friends can see the album, while the privacy of another album can be set so that all Facebook users can see it. Another feature of the Photos applications is the ability to "tag", or label users in a photo. For instance, if a photo contains a user's friend, then the user can tag the friend in the photo. This sends a notification to the friend that they have been tagged, and provides them a link to see the photo.[59]

Facebook Notes was introduced on August 22, 2006, a blogging feature that allowed tags and embeddable images. Users were later able to import blogs from Xanga, LiveJournal, Blogger, and other blogging services.[21] During the week of April 7, 2008, Facebook released a Comet-based[60] instant messaging application called "Chat" to several networks,[61] which allows users to communicate with friends and is similar in functionality to desktop-based instant messengers.

Facebook launched Gifts on February 8, 2007, which allows users to send virtual gifts to their friends that appear on the recipient's profile. Gifts cost $1.00 each to purchase, and a personalized message can be attached to each gift.[62][63] On May 14, 2007, Facebook launched Marketplace, which lets users post free classified ads.[64] Marketplace has been compared to Craigslist by CNET, which points out that the major difference between the two is that listings posted by a user on Marketplace are only seen by users that are in the same network as that user, whereas listings posted on Craigslist can be seen by anyone.[65]

On July 20, 2008, Facebook introduced "Facebook Beta", a significant redesign of its user interface on selected networks. The Mini-Feed and Wall were consolidated, profiles were separated into tabbed sections, and an effort was made to create a "cleaner" look.[66] After initially giving users a choice to switch, Facebook began migrating all users to the new version beginning September, 2008.[67]

On December 11, 2008, it was announced that Facebook is testing out a new simpler signup process.[68]

Platform This article or section needs to be updated. Please update the article to reflect recent events or newly available information, and remove this template when finished.


Facebook launched the Facebook Platform on May 24, 2007, providing a framework for software developers to create applications that interact with core Facebook features.[69][70] A markup language called Facebook Markup Language was introduced simultaneously; it is used to customize the "look and feel" of applications that developers create. Using the Platform, Facebook launched several new applications,[69][70] including Gifts, allowing users to send virtual gifts to each other, Marketplace, allowing users to post free classified ads, Events, giving users a method of informing their friends about upcoming events, and Video, letting users share homemade videos with one another.[71][72]

Applications that have been created on the Platform include chess and Scrabble, which both allow users to play games with their friends.[73][74] These games are asynchronous, meaning that a user's moves are saved on the website, allowing the next move to be made at any time rather than immediately after the previous move.[75]

By November 3, 2007, seven thousand applications had been developed on the Facebook Platform, with another hundred created everyday.[76] By the second annual f8 developers conference on July 23, 2008, the number of applications had grown to 33,000,[77] and the number of registered developers had exceeded 400,000.[78]

Within a few months of launching the Facebook Platform, issues arose regarding "application spam", which involves Facebook applications "spamming" users to request it be installed.[79] Application spam has been considered one of the possible causes to the drop in visitors to Facebook starting from the beginning of 2008, when its growth had fallen from December 2007 to January 2008, its first drop since its launch in 2004.

Reception and popularity

According to comScore, Facebook is the leading social networking site based on monthly unique visitors, having overtaken main competitor MySpace in April 2008.[80] ComScore reports that Facebook attracted 132.1 million unique visitors in June 2008, compared to MySpace, which attracted 117.6 million.[81]

According to Alexa, the website's ranking among all websites increased from 60th to 7th in terms of worldwide traffic, from September 2006 to September 2007, and is currently 5th.[82] Quantcast ranks the website 15th in US in terms of traffic,[83] and Compete.com ranks it 14th in US.[84] The website is the most popular for uploading photos, with 14 million uploaded daily.[85]

Facebook is the most popular social networking site in several English-speaking countries, including Canada[86] and the United Kingdom.[87] However, in the United States, it has only 36 million users compared to MySpace's 73 million.[88] The website has won awards such as placement into the "Top 100 Classic Websites" by PC Magazine in 2007,[89] and winning the "People's Voice Award" from the Webby Awards in 2008.[90] In a 2006 study conducted by Student Monitor, a New Jersey-based company specializing in research concerning the college student market, Facebook was named the second most popular thing among undergraduates, tied with beer and only ranked lower than the iPod.[91]

Use by courts

In December 2008, the Supreme Court of the Australian Capital Territory ruled that Facebook is a valid protocol to serve court notices to defendants. It is believed to be the world's first legal judgment that defines a summons posted on Facebook to be legally binding. [92]

Potential future film

Sony Pictures, and The West Wing creator Aaron Sorkin, have confirmed they are in the process of developing a movie "about the founders of social networking site Facebook." Sorkin has set up his own account on the site, stating, "I honestly don't know how this works, which is why I'm here." The film so far, is untitled, and will be produced by Scott Rudin.[93] According to the Telegraph, the film is expected to focus on Zuckerberg, and 2,500 Facebook users have joined the movies group associated with Sorkin's film, suggesting "plot pointers, offering to help or even asking for a role in the film."[94] Sony was quick to refute suggestions that the film is a hoax (especially after musings that it might be a fake Sorkin account of which there are a number already),[93] with Steve Elzer saying, "We are developing the film that has been reported".[95] However, a spokesperson for Facebook said that, "We are routinely approached by writers and filmmakers interested in telling the Facebook story... At this point, we have not agreed to cooperate with any film project, but we are flattered by the interest."[96]

Controversies
See also: Criticism of Facebook and Use of social network websites in investigations

Facebook has met with some controversy over the past few years. In October 2005, the University of New Mexico blocked access to Facebook from its campus computers and networks.[97] It cited a violation of the university's Acceptable Use Policy for abusing computer resources as the reason, stating the website forces use of the university's credentials for activity not related to the university. The school later unblocked Facebook after the website rectified the situation by displaying a notice on the login page stating the credentials used on the website are separate from the ones used for their school accounts.[98] The Ontario government also blocked access to Facebook for its employees in May 2007, stating the website was "not directly related to the workplace".[99]

On January 1, 2008, a memorial group on Facebook posted the identity of murdered Toronto teenager Stefanie Rengel, whose family had not yet given the Toronto Police Service their consent to release her name to the media, as well as the identities of her accused killers — despite the fact that under Canada's Youth Criminal Justice Act, it is illegal to publish the name of an underage criminal.[100] While police and Facebook staff attempted to comply with the privacy regulations by deleting posts mentioning her name, they noted it was difficult to effectively police individual users who repeatedly republished the deleted information.[101]

Due to the open nature of Facebook, several countries have banned access to it including Syria and Iran.[102][103] The Syrian government cited the ban was on the premise that the website promoted attacks on authorities.[102][104] The government also feared Israeli infiltration of Syrian social networks on Facebook.[102] Facebook was also used by Syrian citizens to criticize the government, and public criticism of the Syrian government is punishable by imprisonment.[102] In Iran, the website was banned because of fears that opposition movements were being organized on the website.[103]

On February 5, 2008, Fouad Mourtada, a citizen of Morocco, was arrested for the alleged creation of a faked Facebook profile of Prince Moulay Rachid of Morocco.[105][106][107][108][109][110][111][112][113][114]

Beacon
Main article: Facebook Beacon

Facebook announced Facebook Beacon on November 7, 2007, a marketing initiative that allows websites to publish a user's activities to their Facebook profile as "Social Ads" and promote products.[115] When launching Beacon, Facebook stated "no personally identifiable information is shared with an advertiser in creating a Social Ad", and that "Facebook users will only see Social Ads to the extent their friends are sharing information with them."[116] After Facebook was criticized for collecting more user information for advertisers than was previously stated, Zuckerberg publicly apologized on December 5, 2007 for the way Facebook launched Beacon, saying, "The problem with our initial approach of making it an opt-out system instead of opt-in was that if someone forgot to decline to share something, Beacon still went ahead and shared it with their friends."[117][118]

Privacy

Several concerns have emerged regarding the use of Facebook as a means of surveillance and data mining.[119] Two MIT students were able to download over 70,000 Facebook profiles from four schools (MIT, New York University, the University of Oklahoma, and Harvard University) using an automated shell script, as part of a research project on Facebook privacy published on December 14, 2005.[120] The possibility of data mining remains open, as evidenced in May 2008, when the BBC technology program "Click" demonstrated that personal details of Facebook users and their friends could be stolen by submitting malicious applications.[121]

Privacy proponents have criticized the site's privacy agreement, which states: "We may use information about you that we collect from other sources, including but not limited to newspapers and Internet sources such as blogs, instant messaging services, Facebook Platform developers and other users of Facebook, to supplement your profile."[122] Another clause that received criticism concerned Facebook's right to sell a user's data to private companies, stating: "We may share your information with third parties, including responsible companies with which we have a relationship."[123] This concern was addressed by Facebook spokesman Chris Hughes who said, "Simply put, we have never provided our users' information to third party companies, nor do we intend to."[124]

Concerns have also been raised regarding the difficulty of deleting user accounts. Previously, Facebook only allowed users to "deactivate" their accounts so that their profile was no longer visible. However, any information the user had entered into the website and on their profile remained on the website's servers. This outraged many users who wished to remove their accounts permanently, citing reasons such as the inability to erase "embarrassing or overly-personal online profiles from their student days as they entered the job market, for fear employers would locate the profiles".[125] Facebook changed its account deletion policies on February 29, 2008, allowing users to contact the website to request that their accounts be permanently deleted.[126]

2009/02/04

Kuroshitsuji (Black Butler)

Kuroshitsuji (黒執事?, Black Butler) is a manga written and illustrated by Yana Toboso. Since its debut on September 16, 2006, it has been serialized in Square Enix's shōnen manga magazine Monthly GFantasy.[1][2] The series follows Sebastian Michaelis, a demonic butler who is obligated to serve Ciel Phantomhive, the twelve-year-old head of the Phantomhive noble family, due to a contract he made with Ciel. It was announced in July 2008 that an anime adaption, directed by Shinohara Toshiya and produced by A-1 Pictures, was expected. It premiered in October 2008.[3][4][5][6]

Plot
In a manor house on the outskirts of Victorian era London, butler Sebastian Michaelis serves Ciel Phantomhive, the twelve-year-old head of an English noble family and a toy company. Sebastian carries out any task required by his master and solves the problems plaguing England with ease and perfection because of his demonic lineage and Faustian contract with his master.

Characters
Sebastian Michaelis (セバスチャン・ミカエリス, Sebasuchan Mikaerisu?) is the butler of the Phantomhive household and Ciel's bodyguard, two jobs he is completely devoted to (though he does put Ciel in dangerous situations to see what he would do and slips in insults from time to time). He often describes himself with the phrase "Watashi wa akuma de shitsuji desu kara.", a play on the word "akuma" (devil) so that it translates to either "I am just a butler" and "I am a demon and a butler", but is alternately translated as "I am one hell of a butler". He is highly skilled in any area and handles every task, no matter how impossible it is, as well as any problem that arises from the errors of the other staff with ease, stating it is only natural as the butler to the Phantomhive family. This is due to the fact he is a demon bound by a "contract" to abide by Ciel's will. A sign similar to the one marking Ciel's right eye can be found on his left hand, which has been used on one occasion to twist the arm of a kidnapper without touching him. The name Sebastian is in fact a temporary name given to him by Ciel. He is voiced by Toshiyuki Morikawa on the first drama CD and Daisuke Ono in the anime adaption and on the second drama CD. [7][8][9] His name is similar to that of Father Sebastien Michaelis, who compiled a hierarchy of demons in Hell.

Ciel Phantomhive (シエル・ファントムハイヴ, Shieru Fantomuhaivu?) is the business-savvy, twelve-year-old head of the English Phantomhive noble family, taking over after the deaths of his parents. He also runs a company that manufactures toys and sweets. His right eye, which is usually covered with a black eyepatch, bears a pentacle sign of contract which binds the demon Sebastian Michaelis to his will. He also has a symbol burned into his back during the time he was traded around as a slave before Sebastien saved him, which is something he does not like for others to see. It is suggested that he ultimately looks at Sebastian as a pawn, as in a chess game. He is close to his cousin and fiancée Elizabeth, seeing her as an important friend and someone he needs to protect. Although he is usually portrayed as emotionless, it is revealed that he does not want to lose anything important to him again. He is voiced by Miyuki Sawashiro on the first drama CD and Maaya Sakamoto in the anime adaption and on the second drama CD.[7][10][9]

Production

Media

Manga
Written and drawn by Yana Toboso, the chapters of Kuroshitsuji have been serialized in the shōnen manga magazine Monthly GFantasy since its debut on September 16, 2006.[2] The chapters are also published in collected volumes by Square Enix. The first volume was released on February 27, 2007 and as of January 27, 2009, six volumes have been released.[11][12]

Drama CD
On August 10, 2007 a drama CD was released by Frontier Works. It featured many of the characters appearing in volumes one and two.[7] A second drama CD was released on November 26, 2008 under the Aniplex label.[9]

Anime
In July 2008, it was announced that an anime adaption, directed by Shinohara Toshiya, was expected. It premiered in October 2008 and broadcasts on the Tokyo Broadcasting System as well as the Mainichi Broadcasting System.[3][6] On January 1, 2009, a limited edition DVD containing the first episode was released by Aniplex.[13] The next three episodes will be released on another DVD on February 25, 2009.[14]

Video game
A video game, called Kuroshitsuji: Phantom & Ghost is currently under development by Square Enix and is expected to be released on March 19, 2009.[15]

source: wikipedia

2009/01/28

School Life (Kertas Haha)

Hari-hari di sekolah gw akhir2 ini nyenengin bgt...
Slain itu tmen2 di sekitar gw juga masih sama gila dengan biasanya, jadi gw gak bakal mati kbosenan...
Hari ini, yg pengen gw share adalah permainan kertas haha...

Simpel aja, yg dbutuhin cuman kertas, alat tulis, dan beberapa temen (idealnya 2-5 pmain)...
Cara maennya cukup persis dengan sambung kalimat (yg maennya bikin2 kalimat dengan kata2 yg random dari stiap orang)... Yg ditulis bisa apa aja, tapi struktur pnulisan kertas haha di klas adalah: NamaOrang1-KataKerja-OrganTubuh-NamaOrang2-KataSifat-KeteranganTempat...
Nah dari beberapa hasil yg lucu hari ini, ini fav gw:

1.
Karim
mencubit
~piiip~
Marsha
dengan berani
(di mana, gw lupa)

2.
Ariel Peterpan
menginjiak
~piiip~
Nana
dengan Cinta
di UNJ

3.
Pembantu
mencukur
~piiip~
Adi
dengan lembut
di Rumah Sakit

Berhubung gw ngetik ini di tempat les, dan skarang udah maw masuk, jadi gw critain lagi apa2nya nanti ya!!

Ps.
Sori sbagian bagian tubuhnya gw sensor, agak terlalu vulgar...

Mecha..?

Mecha, also known as meka or mechs, are walking vehicles controlled by a pilot, often appearing in science fiction or other genres involving a fantastic or futuristic element. Mecha are generally, though not necessarily, bipedal. In most fiction in which they appear, mecha are war machines: essentially armored fighting vehicles with legs instead of treads or wheels. Some stories, such as the manga Patlabor and American miniatures game Battletech, also encompass mecha used for civilian purposes such as heavy construction work, police functions or firefighting.

Some sci-fi universes posit that mecha are the primary means of combat, with conflicts sometimes being decided through gladiatorial matches. Others represent mecha as one component of an integrated military force, supported by and fighting alongside tanks, fighter aircraft, and infantry, functioning as a mechanical cavalry. The applications often highlight the theoretical usefulness of such a device, combining a tank's resilience and fire power with infantry's ability to cross unstable terrain. In other cases they are demonstrated with a greater versatility in armament, such as in the Armored Core series of video games where mecha can utilize their hands to carry a wide range of armament in the same manner as a person albeit on a much larger scale.

The distinction between true mecha and their smaller cousins (and likely progenitors), the powered armor suits, is blurred; according to one definition, a mecha is piloted while a powered armor is worn. Anything large enough to have a cockpit where the pilot is seated is generally considered a mecha.

The first occurrence of mecha in fiction is thought to be the novel The War of the Worlds by H. G. Wells where the Martians use tripod walkers very similar to mecha, but this fails to take into account that, thirty years before, Jules Verne published the La Maison à vapeur (The Steam House), which featured a steam-powered, piloted, mechanical elephant. The first occurrence of mecha robots being piloted by a user from within a cockpit was later introduced in the manga and anime series Mazinger Z by Go Nagai.[1]

Rarely, mecha has been used in a fantasy convention, most notably in the anime series Aura Battler Dunbine, The Vision of Escaflowne and Maze. In those cases, the mecha designs are usually based on some alternative or 'lost' science-fiction technology from ancient times.
Contents
[hide]

* 1 Word origin and usage
* 2 Japanese mecha
* 3 Mechas in fiction
o 3.1 In manga and anime
o 3.2 In film
o 3.3 In games
* 4 Mechas in real life
* 5 See also
* 6 Notes and references
* 7 External links

[edit] Word origin and usage
BattleMechs from the cover of the novel The Legend of the Jade Phoenix by Robert Thurston

The term "mecha" is derived from the Japanese abbreviation meka (メカ, meka?) for the English word "mechanical". In Japanese, "mecha" encompasses all mechanical objects, including cars, guns, computers, and other devices. In this sense, it is extended to humanoid, human-sized robots and such things as the boomers from Bubblegum Crisis, the similar replicants of Blade Runner, and cyborgs can be referred to as mecha, as well as mundane real-life objects such as industrial robots, cars and even toasters. The Japanese use the term "robots" (ロボット, robotto?) or "giant robots" to distinguish limbed vehicles from other mechanical devices.[2] The first widespread English language usage of the term was in the animated series Robotech which was an English dubbing and rewriting of three different anime and the terms usage since then has mostly associated in the west with either robotic (occasionally transforming) piloted vehicles or powered armored battlesuits which are worn akin to exoskeletons. There are exceptions; in the film A.I.: Artificial Intelligence, the word is used to describe "mechanicals" (robotic humanoids), as opposed to "orga" for "organics" (humans).
Illustration of a Tripod from the 1906 French edition of The War of the Worlds

With respect to powered armor suits, mecha typically do not refer to form fitting garments such as the Iron Man armor. Armored suit mecha tend to be much larger and bulkier than the wearer and the wearer's limbs may or may not actually extend completely into the respective limbs.

The Life Model Decoys in the Marvel Comics miniseries Livewires and Artificial Intelligence refer to themselves as mecha.

The term "mech" is used to describe such vehicles considerably more often in Western entertainment than in Asian entertainment. "Mech" as a term originated from BattleTech (where it is often written as 'Mech, short for BattleMech or OmniMech), and is not used in Japan in other contexts except as an unintentional misspelling of "mecha." (One exception is the Japanese version of BattleTech, which attempts to retain the English word.) In Japanese, "robot" is the more frequent term (see 'Other meanings' below). In the Japanese stories themselves, they are seldom known as "mecha".

[edit] Japanese mecha

Robot mecha are quite popular in Japanese manga, and by extension anime. In Western entertainment, they are occasionally seen in video games, especially the action, strategy and simulation genres, but the most well-known Western context for mecha is BattleTech. The original BattleTech—a tabletop strategy game—has been the basis of numerous games, such as Games Workshop's Warhammer 40,000 Titans and products in other media.

[edit] Mechas in fiction

[edit] In manga and anime

Further information: Super Robot and Real Robot

In Japan, "robot anime" (known as "mecha anime" outside Japan) is a genre that features the vehicles and their pilots as the central plot points. Here, the average robot mecha are usually fourteen feet (4.3 m) tall at the smallest, outfitted with a wide variety of weapons, and quite frequently have tie-ins with toy manufacturers. The Gundam franchise is a prominent example: Gundam toys and model kits (produced by the Japanese toymaker Bandai) are ubiquitous in Japan.


The size of mechas can vary according to the story and concepts involved. Some of them may not be considerably taller than a tank (Code Geass, Eureka Seven), some may be a few stories tall (Gundam, Escaflowne) and others can be as tall as a skyscraper (Space Runaway Ideon). There are also mecha which are big enough to contain the population of an entire city (Macross / Robotech), some the size of a small moon (Transformers, Diebuster) and some the size of a large galaxy (Getter Robo, Tengen Toppa Gurren Lagann). Some are even implied to be able to be as large as the universe (Demonbane)


The genre started with Mitsuteru Yokoyama's 1956 manga Tetsujin 28-go (which was later animated in 1963 and also released abroad as Gigantor). Its inclusion is debatable however, as the robot was controlled by remote instead of a cockpit in the machine. Not long after that the genre was largely defined by author Go Nagai, into something considerably more fantastical. Mazinger Z, his most famous creation, was not only the first successful Super Robot anime series, but also the pioneer of the genre staples like robots being piloted by the hero from within a cockpit[1] and weapons that were activated by the hero calling out their names ("Rocket Punch!"). According to Go Nagai:

"I wanted to create something different, and I thought it would be interesting to have a robot that you could drive, like a car."[1]

This led to his creation of the Mazinger Z, which featured giant robots which were "piloted by means of a small flying car and command center that docked inside the head."[1] It was also a pioneer in die-cast metal toys such as the Chogokin series in Japan and the Shogun Warriors in the U.S., that were (and still are) very popular with children and collectors.

Robot/mecha anime and manga differ vastly in storytelling and animation quality from title to title, and content ranges all the way from children's shows to ones intended for an older teen or adult audience.

Some robot mecha are capable of transformation (Macross / Robotech, Zeta Gundam, Gundam 00) or combining to form even bigger ones (see Voltron and Tengen Toppa Gurren Lagann). Go Nagai is also often credited with inventing this in 1974 with the television series Getter Robo.

The mecha genre, one of the oldest genres in anime, is still alive and well in the new millennium, with revival OVAs like Getter Robo: the Last Day and Mazinkaiser from the Super Robot tradition, the recent Mobile Suit Gundam 00 and Code Geass from the Real Robot genre, and Reideen, a recent remake of the 1975 hit series Brave Raideen. Other recent anime series in the mecha genre include Heroic Age and particularly Tengen Toppa Gurren Lagann, a Super Robot anime with elements from the Real Robot genre.

Not all mechas need be completely mechanical. Some have biological components with which to interface with their pilots, and some are partially biological themselves "Neon Genesis Evangelion" and "Zoids"

[edit] In film

Perhaps the most well-known example of mecha in Western culture are the Walkers such as the AT-AT and AT-ST from the Star Wars series of films.

The Hollywood movie Aliens featured a cargoloader as a civilian mecha (although this instance blurs the line between being a mecha or an exoskeleton). The film Robot Jox, featuring two giant mech fight scenes, is another example.

In Matrix Revolutions Captain Mifune leads the human defense of Zion, piloting open-cockpit mecha-like machines called APUs against invading Sentinels.

The tripods featured in The War of the Worlds, with advanced weaponry and dedicated piloting stations, are perhaps the forerunners of modern mecha.

Mechagodzilla, from the Godzilla series, is a rather famous mech.

One of the main characters in The Iron Giant is a giant robot although some may not classify it as a mech because the Iron Giant is an Artificial Intelligence rather than a piloted craft.

[edit] In games

Mecha are often featured in computer and console games. Because of their size and fictional power, mecha are quite popular subjects for games, both tabletop and electronic. One popular classic of mecha in games is the MechWarrior series of video games. Another game Heavy Gear 2 offers a complex yet semi-realistic control system for its' mechas in both terrain and outer space warfare. Armored Core is one of the more popular Japanese franchises today, combining industrial customizable mech designs with fast-paced action. Rivaling Armored Core is Front Mission, a Turn based tactics series of games by SquareEnix. It features Japanese mech designs with more realistic physics, reserving the lightning speed common in the Japanese mecha genre to special machines. MechQuest also features numerous mecha, since it is the primary objective of the game. The player battles other mecha using an RPG-Style combat interface and is able to purchase other mecha using the in-game currency, which is acquired by winning battles. Older American Tabletop games, Battletech, uses hex-maps, miniatures & paper record sheets allows players to mech in tactical situations and record realistic damage, while add RPG elements when desired.

In the tabletop game Warhammer 40,000 the Tau use Mecha Battlesuits while the Adeptus Mechanicus use huge mechs called titans, the Orks also use huge, ragtag mechs called gargants. The Eldar also use their particular version of titans, which are often more agile and compact than their Imperial counterparts, as well as the smaller wraithlords.

Another example is in the game Battlefield 2142, in which mecha fight alongside conventional military units such as infantry, tanks, gunships, and APCs in the European Union's and Pan-Asian Coalition's military forces.

source: wikipedia